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The human body is a complex system consisting of various organs and tissues, with each performing a specific function. One of the most crucial organs in the body is the brain, which is responsible for controlling and coordinating all the body’s activities. The brain contains billions of nerve cells, also known as neurons, which communicate with each other through electrical signals.

What are Neurons?


Neurons are specialized cells that are responsible for transmitting and receiving electrical and chemical signals in the body. They are the building blocks of the nervous system and are found in the brain, spinal cord, and other parts of the body.

Neurons have three main parts: the cell body, dendrites, and axons. The cell body contains the nucleus and other organelles, while the dendrites are short, branching extensions that receive signals from other neurons. The axon is a long, thin projection that transmits signals away from the cell body.

How Do Neurons Communicate?

Neuron FiringSource:

Neurons communicate with each other through a process called synaptic transmission. When an action potential, or electrical signal, reaches the end of an axon, it triggers the release of neurotransmitters, which are chemical messengers that cross the synapse, the small gap between neurons. The neurotransmitters then bind to receptors on the dendrites of the next neuron, causing an electrical signal to be generated in that neuron.

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Once the electrical signal reaches the end of the axon, it triggers the release of more neurotransmitters, and the process starts again. This communication between neurons allows the nervous system to send and receive information quickly and efficiently.

What is the Role of Ion Channels?

Ion ChannelsSource:

Ion channels are proteins that are found in the cell membrane of neurons and are responsible for generating and transmitting electrical signals. They allow ions, such as sodium, potassium, and calcium, to move in and out of the cell, which creates an electrical potential difference, or voltage, across the membrane.

When a neuron receives a signal, ion channels open and allow ions to flow into or out of the cell, which changes the voltage across the membrane. This change in voltage triggers the opening of more ion channels, which leads to an action potential, or electrical signal, being generated and transmitted along the axon.

What is the Role of Myelin?


Myelin is a fatty substance that surrounds and insulates the axon of some neurons. It acts as an electrical insulator and helps to increase the speed at which electrical signals are transmitted along the axon.

Myelin is produced by cells called oligodendrocytes in the central nervous system and Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system. Diseases that affect myelin, such as multiple sclerosis, can lead to a decrease in the transmission of electrical signals and can cause symptoms such as weakness, numbness, and difficulty walking.

What is the Role of Action Potentials?

Action PotentialSource:

Action potentials are rapid changes in the voltage across the membrane of a neuron that allow electrical signals to be transmitted along the axon. They are generated when the voltage across the membrane reaches a certain threshold, which triggers the opening of ion channels and the influx of sodium ions into the cell.

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The influx of sodium ions causes the voltage across the membrane to become more positive, which triggers the opening of more ion channels and the further influx of sodium ions. This positive feedback loop leads to a rapid depolarization of the membrane and the generation of an action potential.

What is the Role of Synapses?


Synapses are the small gaps between neurons where neurotransmitters are released and received. They allow neurons to communicate with each other and transmit information throughout the nervous system.

There are two main types of synapses: electrical synapses, which allow electrical signals to pass directly from one neuron to another, and chemical synapses, which involve the release of neurotransmitters and are more common in the nervous system.


The electrical mechanism in the human nerve cells is a complex process that involves the generation and transmission of electrical signals, the opening and closing of ion channels, the production and release of neurotransmitters, and the insulation of the axon by myelin. This mechanism allows the nervous system to send and receive information quickly and efficiently, and is crucial for the proper functioning of the body.

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